Battling for a Claim in North America, The Battle of Quebec, 1759

The Battle of Quebec was one of the earliest conflicts in the American Revolutionary War. It heralded the first full scale defeat for the American forces in the battle against the British.

The Canadian Province of Quebec was held by the British. It was considered an important strategic stronghold. It was thought that if they could take control of Quebec they would seriously weaken the British army’s potential to launch an attack towards the Hudson River and block their path towards New York.

The attack on Quebec came from two sides. Benedict Arnold led a troop of 1,100 men from Cambridge Massachusetts and journeyed up through the wilderness land which now forms the state of Maine. The second prong of the attack was led by Richard Montgomery from Lake Champlain.

Both leaders had the incorrect assumption that as Quebec was only defended by 600 troops it would be an easy battle to win. They also wrongly thought that they had the overwhelming support of the Canadian people in Quebec.

In many ways the expedition was doomed from the start. Arnold’s troops were heavily depleted by the time they reached Quebec. The sea voyage had been ill advised and badly planned. The map of the sea route which Arnold was relying upon was inaccurate and missing many details. Many of the boats where badly constructed and began leaking. This lead to enormous problems including the destruction of supplies on the boats.

Not only was the sea voyage treacherous, the journey over land through Maine also proved to be extremely challenging. The boggy conditions, lack of food and inadequate maps severely depleted the health and the morale of the troops. 450 men turned back and abandoned the journey to Quebec.

Of the 1,100 troops who set out from Cambridge, only 600 reached Quebec. The journey had proved to be 350 miles, not the 180 that was originally estimated. The locals took pity on the troops and many helped by giving them food and shelter.

Arnold realized that he would have to wait until the Montgomery and his troops arrived before he could mount an attack.

The Americans hoped that their arrival would inspire the Canadians to surrender. This was a false hope. Instead the depleted and ill equipped soldiers faced a fortified city. They had seriously miscalculated the efforts required to take Quebec.

The combined American forces launched an attack on December 31 1775. They were met with relentless artillery fire from the British, and Montgomery was killed in the first attack. His men were forced to retreat.

Arnold’s part of the attack did not succeed either. They could not fight successfully against the heavily fortified British army. The Americans suffered heavy losses. More than one third of the 1,200 Americans who began the attack were either killed, injured or captured. British losses were light in comparison.

The defeated American troops retreated to outside the city, where they remained for several months. The soldiers withdrew completely when the British fleet arrived in May 1776.

Britain Announces its power to the World, the Battle of Blenheim, 1704

The Battle of Blenheim, which was fought on August 14 1704, was a huge turning point in the balance of power in Europe. It was also a significant message to the rest of the World that Britain was a powerful military force.

The death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 had created a crisis of succession as he died without male heirs. He was the last monarch of the Spanish branch of the hugely powerful House of Habsburg. Charles II had named the teenaged Duke of Anjou as the next King of Spain. This sent shock waves through the rest of Europe as the Duke was the grandson of Louis XIV of France. To have such a close alliance between the powers of France and Spain was a threat to the balance of power.

Tensions increased when France occupied Spanish territories in The Netherlands as it seemed that they were taking over even more control of Spain and exerting what could be, if left unchecked, an unstoppable expansionist policy.

The British formed an alliance with the Austrians and the Dutch. Their plan was that Archduke Charles should be King of Spain. Against this background, the Spanish War of Succession began.

Vienna was the capital of the Habsburg Empire and by 1704 the French were confident that it was only a matter of time before they gained control of this crucial territory. It was thought that when Vienna fell, the rest of Europe would follow suit. The Allies knew that it was crucial that they did not allow Vienna to fall into the hands of the French.

The Duke of Marlborough showed exceptional skill and courage in his leadership. When it became clear that the Dutch did not want to engage in battle in Vienna and showed little support for an Allied attack, Marlborough tricked them into thinking that he was repositioning his troops no further than Cologne.

In reality Marlborough always planned to take decisive action to stop French expansion into Austria. His men made the 250-mile march towards Blenheim and consolidated their position. The French did not expect them to attack – they wrongly assumed that their supply lines would fail, that they would be intimidated by the size and prowess of their army, and that the Allies would eventually retreat. Price Eugene of Savoy provided considerable reinforcements for the Allied forces, and it was decided to launch an attack on the heavily fortified Blenheim.

There is no agreement about the size of each of the armies, but it is clear that the Allies were outnumbered by the French. The Allies had approximately 56,000 men and the French 60,000. Losses were particularly severe on the French side and it is reputed that more than 30,000 men died.

The victory at the Battle of Blenheim halted the French expansion into Austria. The Spanish War of Succession did not end for some time, but the Battle of Blenheim marked a turning point in the balance of power in Europe. Marlborough and Price Eugene had reinforced the Habsburg Empire. Perhaps most significantly the Battle showed the rest of the World that Britain was now a military force to be reckoned with.

How 600 British Horseman Overthrew the Russian Cavalry – The Battle of Balaclava 1854

The Battle of Balaclava is one of the most famous in British history. The plight of the men engaged in Battle was immortalized in the poem by Tennyson, “The Charge of the Light Brigade”.

The Battle of Balaclava was a classic illustration of how the aristocratic leaders of the Allies disdain for each other and their complete incompetence, cost many lives. It was a futile battle, where little strategic advantage was gained for either side.

The Battle of Balaclava took place during the Crimean War. The Allies comprised the British, the French and the Turks of the then crumbling Ottoman Empire.

The port of Sevastapol was a crucial strong hold for the Russian army. It was an essential supply line to and from the Black Sea. If the Allies could break this supply line it would be a significant turning point in the war. If they could gain control of Sevastapol the Russians would be severely weakened.

In September 1854 the Allies began to attack Sevastapol, but the siege was at a stalemate for six weeks with little progress being made.

During the night on October 24 1854 the Russians decided to go on the offensive and encircle the Allies. They had intelligence that the British side of the siege was not as strong as that of the French, and therefore the Russians should strategically attack the British side to gain the advantage.

With 25,000 troops being deployed, the Allies stood little chance, but what followed was a series of blunders and incompetence which resulted in huge loss of life.

The British leaders in the Crimean War were some of the most incompetent in history. They didn’t take the movement of the Russian troops seriously – preferring instead to enjoy their dinner and ignore the impending attack.

At sunrise the Russians attacked. The 500 Turkish defenders did not stand a chance against the 25,000 Russians with 78 canons. Within a short time only 100 Turks were still standing. The British did not intervene as it was seen as futile against these huge forces. The 6 Turkish fortifications were soon destroyed by the Russians.

The remaining Turks were joined by the valiant Scottish 93rd Highlander Regiment. Their valiant fight gave the British the time to actually saddle their horses to prepare to engage in battle. The Heavy Cavalry were finally given the order to attack.

The incompetence of the British leaders was not yet over. During the battle the Light Brigade were in a position to attack and assist the Heavy Brigade, but Lord Cardigan refused to give them the order to do so. This gave the Russians the time and opportunity to take the captured Turkish canons back to their own lines. It was only at this late stage that Lord Raglan sent orders that Lord Cardigan must order the charge of the Light Brigade.

More spectacular incompetence and confusion ensued. Captain Lewis Nolan was given the responsibility of conveying the orders – despite the fact that he hated the men of the cavalry. Not exactly the best person for the task of commanding them into a suicidal battle.

Nolan was unclear in his orders and simply told the men to capture the guns – unfortunately from their position they could no longer see the canons. He was directing them to run into a no man’s land with heavy enemy artillery on either side of the valley.

Lord Lucan could only see the guns at the end of the valley. He insisted that Cardigan ordered his Light Brigade into battle ahead of the Heavy Brigade. There is no military logic to that decision, and it is thought that it was motivated by Lord Lucan’s intense dislike of Lord Cardigan.

It is thought that Captain Nolan, leading the charge, may have noticed his mistake that he was leading the men to the wrong guns. He reportedly broke formation and began waving his arms. No one will ever know what his intention was as he was hit by an artillery shell and killed soon after his either bold, or foolish move.

Remarkably some of the cavalry did reach the Russian guns at the other side and ran through the heavy artillery. Their numbers were heavily depleted and it is thought that more than half of the horses had been killed by the time they had reached the other side of the valley. The men who did make it began to engage the Russian forces on the ground with remarkable success.

At this point the Allies were making amazing progress at fighting the stunned Russian forces. However, they realized that the Heavy Brigade was not following to help. Lord Lucan had ordered them not to go ahead as he said “there was no reason the whole cavalry should be destroyed”.

Not surprisingly, the surviving forces of the Light Brigade were not impressed by being left alone without reinforcements, but tried to fight their way back across the no man’s land. Fortunately, the French observed what was happening and attacked the guns to the right of the valley, giving the Light Brigade a chance to make it back to their own lines.

The Battle of Balaclava only lasted for 20 minutes, but it’s casualties were high. It is thought that 673 men of the Light Brigade were ordered to charge into the valley. Many did not survive. There is no agreement on exactly how many casualties there were, but it is estimated that at least 116 men were killed and 131 wounded. 60 were taken captive by the Russians. The horses fared very badly with 475 animals killed.

In a spectacular illustration of the appalling attitude of some of the British military leaders, Lord Cardigan retreated back to the British lines as soon as he could. He then found solace in the luxury and comfort of his yacht and enjoyed a glass of fine champagne. Hundreds of his men were lying dead on the battle field, but he failed to show any remorse for his incompetent orders.

The Battle of Balaclava resulted in no significant territorial gains for either the Russians or the Allies.

The Modernization of the British Army, The Battle of the Somme, 1916

The Battle of the Somme saw horrendous loss of life and suffering on an unimaginable scale. This World War I battle is particularly seen as a symbol of the futility of war and the huge price that is paid by the people involved. On July 1 1916 the casualties were the highest of any British battle to date. Some 20,000 men were killed and 40,000 wounded on that one day alone.

The stark facts of the Battle of the Somme are difficult to comprehend. In the 141 days of the conflict the Allies advanced a mere 7 miles at the cost of many thousands of lives. Losses were on an unimaginable scale on both sides. The Allies lost 125,000 men. Almost 300,000 were injured. The German Army suffered the loss of even more men than the Allies – some put the figures as high as 680,000 dead and wounded.

These facts are shocking. However, the Battle of the Somme is also seen as a turning point in the modernization of the British Army. It was a huge price to pay, but lessons were learned. Many historians argue that the Battle of the Somme paved the way for the Allied victory in 1918.

One of the most significant changes was in the realization that training of recruits had to be improved and standardized. The push to enlist meant that one million men had joined the Allied forces by Christmas of 1914. At first the army training program was not able to deal efficiently with training such a large number of raw recruits. Training was greatly improved after the Battle of the Somme.

Following the Battle of the Somme it was also recognized that more control to make decisions should be given to the Officers on the ground rather than a centralized command. Communication was slow and a higher command did not always have the ability to make informed decisions about what action the troops should take. Officers on the ground were given more power over decisions of how to act in particular situations.

There were also many advancements in military tactics. The Battle of the Somme was the first conflict in which the technique of the “creeping barrage” was used. This innovative tactic allowed for a more efficient advancement by placing artillery fire just ahead of the infantry, rather than the simpler technique of a long artillery bombardment ahead of the advance.

Other techniques were developed which made it easier to detect the location of the enemy. These included flash spotting which was a technique which involved observing the flash of light from a gun when fired to located the position of the artillery.

The aftermath of the Battle of the Somme also saw a much more efficient organization of supply lines to the troops. Prior to that time the supply line system was disorganized and haphazard. The development of a supply line system greatly enhanced the efficiency of the troops.

Airborne reconnaissance also began to play a much larger part in gathering intelligence for the Allies. A lot of important information was gathered from airborne missions. The different branches of the forces started to communicate and work together much more effectively. The Air Force started to work closely with the artillery and infantry providing them with intelligence and air cover.

The loss of life at the Battle of the Somme can never be forgotten or its impact diminished. However, the men who sacrificed their lives and the families who lost their loved ones did not suffer in vain. The Battle of the Somme ultimately paved the way for the Allied victory in 1918. The lessons that were learned were crucial to the ending the Great War.

The Will to Win! Success in the Battle of V Rorke’s Drift

The British saw Zululand as an obstacle to their expansionist policies in Southern Africa. They realized that before their hopes of a British Controlled Confederation of South Africa could be made into reality, they had to defeat Zululand and it’s 40,000 strong army of warriors.

The Zulu War was not sanctioned by the British government, but was contrived by the actions of Sir Bartle Frere. He had been given the job of bringing the British strongholds in South Africa into a Confederation. The British government wanted to avoid conflict. Frere had other ideas. He told the Zulu King that he must disband his army or war would be declared. The inevitable result of this unacceptable request was the Zulu War which was declared on January 11 1879.

The Battle of Rorke’s Drift followed the disastrous defeat which the British suffered at Isandlwana on January 22 1879. In this devastating ambush over 20,000 Zulu warriors attacked 1,800 British troops and 400 civilians. Losses for the British were huge – over 1,300 troops were killed.

The defeat was seen as all the more remarkable as the Zulus were perceived to have primitive weapons compared to the British. However, this was largely a myth. The Zulus did have spears, but they were also equipped with a large quantity of muskets and rifles. They were not as well trained in their use as the British were, but many of the British troops who died were shot, not speared.

Following the devastating defeat at Isadlwana the British had little warning that the Rorke’s Drift attack was about to take place on the same day. A small group of 150 British troops fended off an attack by an estimated 4,000 Zulu warriors. They held strong and remarkably only 17 British soldiers were killed. 351 Zulu bodies were counted following the battle.

There is some evidence that war atrocities were committed in the aftermath of Rorke’s Drift. These are of course controversial, but are backed by a number of documents held in museums and most notably at Windsor Castle. It is alleged that the British covered up what happened in the aftermath of the battle. There is evidence that the Zulu death toll was much higher than officially acknowledged and that as many as 500 men were killed after the battle had ended.

It is alleged that a British relief force was responsible for executing the wounded and captured Zulus. Some were hanged and others were buried alive in mass graves. The British were said to have been incensed by the massacre that they had seen in the aftermath of Isandlwana. None of the troops involved in the Rorke’s Drift Battle were said to be involved in the atrocities as they were resting after the battle.

The Battle of Rorke’s Drift became one of the most notable British victories in history. The extreme bravery shown by the British troops led to the awarding of a total of 11 Victoria Crosses – this is more than ever awarded before or since at any single battle.

The First Amphibious Mission: A New Way to Wage War the Battle of Gallipoli, 1916

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In World War I the Allies had suffered a huge defeat in a naval attack on the strategically significant Ottoman port of Istanbul. Control of the port was crucial as it is at the gateway between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. The Allies suffered a crushing blow when almost one third of their deployed naval fleet of 85 ships was destroyed.

The Allies refused to accept this humiliating defeat and immediately another attack was ordered. The tactic was different this time. An amphibious attack was planned involving 75,000 Allied troops.

Amphibious attacks were an untested military concept. The mission was in many ways doomed from the start – the Allies were given only 5 weeks to plan and execute this new form of attack. This was not long enough to plan an operation of this complexity, but it gave the Ottoman forces a great deal of time to fortify their defenses.

Another problem was one of communication. The Mediterranean Expeditionary Force of some 75,000 men was comprised of troops from many different countries. The glaring issue was that many of them didn’t speak the same language.

The Allies had limited intelligence of Turkish positions and grossly underestimated the resolve of the defenders to maintain their position. The arrogant belief was that the Turks simply didn’t have the strength or motivation to defend their territory. The Allies lacked fundamental necessities and didn’t even have an accurate map of the beaches of the proposed landings. The campaign was one of the most spectacularly inept in the history of modern warfare.

The landings were a disaster for the Allies. Due to the strong winds many of the troops landed some distance from the intended landing zones. Those that did make it onto the beach from the landing craft found it an almost impossible task to scale the incredibly steep cliffs at the landing sites.

The Gallipoli attach was launched on 25 April, but the battle waged on until January 9 1917. Disease was a huge problem – more troops were victims of disease than were killed in combat. Finally, after many months of futile losses, the Allies were ordered to withdraw.

It is thought that 56,000 Allied troops died in battle in the Gallipoli campaign. Almost 200,000 were injured or shipped out of the battle field as a result of illness and disease. Losses on the Turkish side were also very heavy – 86,000 perished in the battle.

In between World War I and World War II the popular belief was that amphibious landings simply could not be successful. However, it soon became clear that in order for the Allies to make advances in World War II they had to consider an amphibious campaign. This was most successfully carried out in the D-Day landings on June 6 1944. The study of the Battle of Gallipoli was an integral part of the planning of the landings in Normandy. The failure of the Gallipoli amphibious landings taught the World a huge lesson.

Joining Forces to End the Great War, D-Day, 1944

D-Day was one of the most significant days in World History. June 6th 1944 saw one of the most carefully planned and executed acts of Allied cooperation ever experienced. It marked a huge step forward in bringing the conflict of World War II to an end, and it saw significant cooperation and planning between the Allied Forces.

The numbers are huge. More than 5,000 Allied troops landed on the Normandy beaches on 6th June 1944. By the time that the invasion had finished it is estimated that 875,000 troops had landed on the shores of Northern France. It marked a significant turning point in World War II and paved the way to the end of the conflict. The action was not without significant sacrifice. It is confirmed that 4414 men of the combined Allied forces lost their lives on D-Day.

D-Day was a true example of the Allies joining forces in the common aim of ending World War II. The Allied forces consisted of troops from Britain, the United States, Canada, Australia, France, Greece, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Norway, the Netherlands, Norway, New Zealand and Poland.

There were 5 beaches involved in the Normandy landings and they were all given code names. The American beaches were Omaha and Utah, the others were Gold Beach, Sword and Juno.

Plans for the Normandy landings began in 1943. It required large scale planning of meticulous detail. The weather conditions on June 6th were not idea, but it was decided that it had to go ahead on that day. The weather, tide and the full moon had to be aligned for the attack to have the maximum chance of success.

The first stage of the attack was the air bombardment which began just after midnight. By this stage of the War, the German air force was heavily depleted. The British and the Americans deployed 2,200 aircraft whilst the Germans only had 570 aircraft in Normandy, and only an additional 964 in the rest of Germany. Weather conditions were bad, and bombers were afraid of hitting their own troops, so the air deployment was not as successful as it had been hoped.

The next stage was the minesweepers. The Germans had been anticipating an attack and had heavily fortified the coastal areas, particularly around Northern France. The minesweepers mission was successful and they were able to finish at sunrise without encountering German opposition.

The American beaches of Omaha and Utah were the first to be attacked at 6.30 am. Ahead of this the naval bombardment stated at 5.45, when it was still dark.

The amphibious craft were extremely vulnerable to attack, and as soon as the troops stepped on the beach the dangers multiplied.

The Utah Beach landings were the first to be ordered, and they were a great success. 21,000 troops landed with 197 casualties. This was partly as the weather had made them drift off target – that was unexpected, but fortuitous.

At Point du Hoc 135 men of the Allied forces were killed, Gold Beach 1,000, Juno Beach 961, Sword Beach more than 1,000 were lost.

Omaha Beach was a different story. Strong winds forced the craft off target, and many of the troops had to wade through the water to reach the land. There were 2,000 causalities on this very heavily defended beach. Around 600 mean were able to reach the higher ground.

D-Day was a hugely significant turning point in the battle for the Allies to bring about the end of World War II. The meticulous planning and execution of the mission was the beginning of the end of the War in Europe.


The Battle of Waterloo, Defeating the French and Ending Napoleon’s Reign

Napoleon Bonaparte was finally defeated at the Battle of Waterloo on June 18th 1815. Napoleon is a fascinating character in European history. His rise to power and subsequent downfall and exile are one of the most interesting studies in history. The Battle of Waterloo marked the end of his reign of power.

Following the French Revolution of 1892, Napoleon spent the next decade rising to power and consolidating his position. His meteoric rise was impressive. He was born to the Corsican nobility, but this gave him little advantage as money did not come with his status.

Napolean proved to be a talented military strategist and graduated from a French military school in 1785. It was not long before he could put these talents to the test, as he quikcly rose up through the ranks to become a respected military leader.

Until 1912 Napoleon’s military and political success had been huge, and largely unchecked. Napoleon took control of France in 1799 and became Emperor in 1804. His title was self proclaimed, but it was largely accepted by the people of France. His military and political success was outstanding. Napoleon’s rise and fall is a fascinating chapter of European history.

Napoleon made the mistake that many have in history which has caused their downfall. He invaded Russia in 1912. This proved to be a disaster. Napoleon was also suffering significant defeats elsewhere in Europe. The Peninsula War drove him from the Iberian Peninsula. Napoleon also suffered defeat in the Battle of Leipzig.

By 1914 Napoleon had suffered devastating and humiliating defeat. The collation forces had captured Pairs by March 1914. Napoleon was forced into exile on the island of Elba.

Most would agree that there are few places in the world better to spend a period of exile than the beautiful Italian island of Elba. Napoleon did not agree with this sentiment and plotted his escape back to the French mainland. He returned to Paris in March 1815.

His return sent shock waves around the rest of Europe. The British, Prussians, Russians and Austrians formed an alliance to stop Napoleon returning to power.

Napoleon wanted to launch an attack as a preemptive strike upon the Allies, so he invaded Belgium in March 1815. The British and Prussian armies were already stationed there in anticipation of an attack from Napoleon.

Initially Napoleon was successful and defeated the Prussian army. His battle with the British proved to be his final stand. The British army were well prepared and had noble assistance from Holland, German and Belgian forces. The numbers of troops on each side were pretty evenly matched, but the strategic operations of the Allies won the Battle of Waterloo.

Strategic errors allowed the Allied forces to muster support and the arrival of Prussian troops to assist in Napoleons defeat was a major factor.

It appears that Napoleons skills as a major tactician deserted him and he made mistakes in the Battle of Waterloo. He suffered a major defeat and was forced to abdicate once more in June 1815. This time he was exiled to the British held island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic. We can speculate that he must have missed the idyllic island of Elba in the Mediterranean. He died aged 51 on May 21st 1821.


The End of the Jacobite Rebellion: Culloden, 1746

The Battle of Culloden not only marked the end of the Jacobite Rebellion, it was also the last battle ever to be fought on British soil.

Charles Edward Stuart, or Bonnie Prince Charlie as he was called by his supporters, led the campaign to restore a Stuart King to the British throne. He had marched his army of 6,000 to London to try and gain support for his attempt to overthrow the Hanoverian King, George II. Unfortunately for the Young Pretender (as his enemies called him), his campaign met with little success and he gained no significant support.

Charles decided to retreat back to Inverness in Scotland. Most of his army were Roman Catholic Highlanders. They were poorly equipped for combat. Whilst some did have swords, many only had makeshift weapons.

The Duke of Cumberland was the leader of the King’s army of around 8,000 men. They marched towards Inverness with the intention of finally defeating the Jacobite Rebellion. They arrived and encamped in Nairn on April 14 1746. Bonnie Prince Charlie’s forces were depleted by this time and are estimated to have been around 5,400 in number.

The rebels moved towards Nairn. It was debated as to whether using guerilla tactics would bring them a better chance of victory over Cumberland, but Bonnie Prince Charlie rejected that idea.

Instead it was decided that the Jacobites would launch a night attack. The Duke of Cumberland’s birthday of April 15 was chosen for the night attack. This type of campaign had worked successfully for them before, but this time it was a failure which simply depleted the energy of the already exhausted Highlanders. They were very short on food and many simply did not have the strength to engage in battle.

The Duke of Cumberland gave the order to march to attack the Jacobites on April 16. The already exhausted Jacobites formed a wall of defense with ground troops on the front line, and soldiers on horseback forming the second line. Morale was low and many of the Jacobite troops were exhausted and hungry. To add to their woes, the weather conditions were poor, with wind blowing rain and sleet into their faces.

Cumberland’s forces subjected the enemy line to an artillery attack which lasted some 20 minutes. It is not known why Bonnie Prince Charlie delayed the order to charge. The terrain was boggy and unsuited to this type of combat, but he had little choice. The Highland clan leaders were angry that Charles had delayed giving the order to charge, and persuaded him that he needed to do so. Unfortunately, by this point support for his leadership was waning, and confusion was rife. The charge was uncoordinated, but many of the Highlanders did reach enemy lines.

They were no match for the King’s army. Losses on the Jacobite side were high with around 1,250 men losing their lives, many were wounded and 558 taken prisoner. The Duke of Cumberland’s army lost 52 with 259 injured. The Battle of Culloden lasted only an hour and the army of Bonnie Prince Charlie was defeated, marking the end of the Jacobite rebellion.

The Battle of Inkerman: The Russians Retreat

Pristovoitov, a colonel who was immediately shot in the course of the battle, immediately succeeded him. When he was killed, another Russian named Colonel Uvazhnov-Aleksandov was appointed the commander of the Russian forces. He was also killed shortly and another Russian was appointed in a continuous British attack. When this happened no officer was interested in taking control of the army, and captain Andrianov was asked to go and consult different generals of that problem.

This forced the rest of the column down the valley where the pickets and the artillery attacked them and they were eventually driven off. British resistance was brutal. The Russian command under General Paulov led 15,000 Russian men attacked the allied forces at the Sandbag battery. When they were coming, 300 men British soldiers defended aggressively and by vaulting the wall. With a charged bayonet, they drove the first battalion away. The 41st regiment of the allied forces attacked five other battalions. They succeeded in sending them away from River Chernaya.

Home Hill was the center of the battle. The command of the Russian army finally falls into the hands of General Peter Dannenberg. In addition to the soldiers under his control, he inherited an uncommitted 9,000 men who sprayed after the initial attack. These soldiers launched an attack against the British position and series of fierce battles was fought. The Russians started by attacking the British at the Home Hill. The British held that position for a very long time. The second British division who was in charge of that sector needed help and the fourth division and guards’ brigade were assisting them.

The British withdrew before men of the Russian forces took it. The Russians launched an attack with 7,000 men, and they launched the attack at Sandbag Battery. 2000 allied forces confronted these 7,000 men. A very fierce battle was fought and the control of the Sandbag Battery changed hands at different times. The British were such determined that they held their position strongly and stubbornly. The British infantry was so determined in their defense that they never shifted ground despite the aggressive Russian attack.

When the fourth division finally arrived, they were under the command of General Catheart and they did not waste time to go into action against the Russians. They launched a heavy offensive against the Russians in several fronts. Their courage motivated the other allied forces and they had to attack the Russians on all sectors.

However, Russians cut the forces from the middle and this led to the death of the commander Cathcart. This was devastating to the British and this led to the premature end of the British attack. This helped the Russians a lot and they were able to gain enough ground. French soldiers who arrived immediately pushed the Russians back. The fifth French division reinforced the allied forces and this brings down the advantages already had by the Russians.

The allied forces further repelled the Russian army. It is good to point out that the timely intervention of the French soldiers helped a lot. By this time, the Russians have deployed all their forces and they do not have more to deploy.

The Russians managed to repel all the allied forces attack and they began to withdraw from their positions. As they withdrew, the allied forces did not pursue them, but the Russians never attempted to attack them at that sector. Allied forces defended that sector out of their determination. This is why it was regarded as the soldier’s battle.